Sunday, January 31, 2010

Pictures of Little Owl Hatching

Tyto alba (Burung Pungguk Jelapang)

Me with Tyto alba at Paddy field in Selangor

telur BPJ (egg)


Anak Burung Pungguk (Tyto alba chicks)

Parts of an Owl

Tyto alba dewasa (adult)

Compiled by Deane P. Lewis 1999-04-15, last updated 2005-06-21

Domain: Eukaryota (Organisms with complex cells)
Kingdom: Animalia (Animals)
Phylum: Chordata (Having a hollow dorsal nervecord and flexible skeletal rod)
Sub-Phylum: Vertebrata (Having a backbone)
Class: Aves (Birds)
Order: Strigiformes (Owls)

Owls are a group of mainly nocturnal (active at night) birds classified as belonging to the order Strigiformes, a group which is most closely related to nightjars (Caprimulgiformes). The order is divided into two families: Tytonidae or Barn Owls and related species, and Strigidae or Typical Owls.
Click Here to see a full list of the World's Owls.

Appearance: A large, round head and huge, forward-facing eyes are features that make an Owl instantly recognisable. They also have a sharp, downward-facing beak (or bill), and soft, cryptically coloured plumage. Males and Females are generally similar in appearance, although the female is often up to 25% larger.

Adaptations: Owls are Raptors, or Birds of Prey, which means they hunt other living things for their food, using their special adaptations and unique abilities that set them apart from any other creature.
Exceptional vision, and acute hearing play a major part in an Owl's hunting technique. Couple these with powerful talons and beak, plus the ability to fly silently, and you have a formidable predator, using stealth to hunt down prey.

After Eating, Owls regurgitate pellets, which contain the indigestible bones, fur and feathers of their victims. These pellets can be collected by researchers to study Owls' eating habits.

Distribution: Owls are found on all continents except Antarctica, and in a great variety of habitats, from thick forests to open prairies.

Size: The smallest owl in the world is the Least Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium minutissimum) at 12cm (4.5") tall, and the biggest owl in the world is is generally accepted to be the Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) at up to 71cm (28") tall.

Campbell, Wayne. 1994. "Know Your Owls (CD-ROM)". Axia Wildlife
Hollands, David. 1991. "Birds of the Night". Reed Books
K├Ânig, Weick and Becking. 1999. "Owls: A Guide to the Owls of the World". Yale University Press
Long, Kim. 1998. "Owls: A Wildlife Handbook". Johnson Books
Mikkola, Heimo. 1983. "Owls of Europe". Buteo Books

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Pengenalan Siput Gondang Pomacea Dan Kawalannya

Slick Eggs

Slick Eggs
Published December 22, 2008

Within an egg shell, the rapidly developing embryo needs plenty of oxygen. Using an oil to kill eggs by impeding oxygen transfer through the shell is nothing new. For instance, the USFWS has recommended mineral oil for use on nuisance geese nests. Why not use vegetable oil to kill apple snail eggs?

I spoke my old friend Dr. Bill Haller this morning about his team’s work with the use of oil as an oocide on apple snail eggs. At the University of Florida’s Center for Aquatic Invasive Plants’ laboratory, they have tried castor oil, Crisco oil, peanut oil, Pam Spray, corn oil, and even Mobil oil!

“Just about any oil will work,” Bill said, “but corn oil is the way to go because it is most likely exempt from EPA regulations. Technically, however, we need a company to submit a label to EPA to get the EPA review and an exemption letter. A company hasn’t stepped up because a patented product is doubtful. The ingredients are just too generic.”

Bill discussed the nuances of effectively treating snail eggs. First, the fresher the better – - Recently laid eggs are more vulnerable to the smothering effects of an oil barrier. Secondly, straight oil is the way to go. Diluting the oil and adding surfactants didn’t work as well as 100% oil. Finally, a thorough application is necessary to kill the eggs. This was made apparent in the discrepancy between the efficacy of dipping the eggs in oil versus spraying. Dipping clearly worked better in the lab tests.

Is it practical to load up a 50 gallon sprayer with oil on an airboat and treat the perimeter of an infested lake? “In reality, vegetable oil is tough to use,” Bill noted. And, it’s not cheap. Vegetable oils range from $3.00 to $6.00/gallon.

My bench tests using an emulsion of Crisco oil (50%) and Yucca saponins (3%) provided mixed results (see image above). The idea was to reduce costs via dilution of the oil with water, while adding a saponin with possible molluscicidal properties. Hatching numbers were reduced, but the cost/benefit wasn’t that appealing. I also tried hand-spraying vegetable oil on some egg clusters Wellman Lake and found it to be almost as time consuming as simply hand-picking the eggs, plus some of the “slick eggs” eventually hatched.

This is not to say we should all give up on this avenue. A student project in the Philippines recently revealed the great promise of coconut oil as an oocide on Pomacea canaliculata (See Recent Publications, June, 2008): “Results showed that coconut oil could inhibit the hatching of 82.2% of the golden snail eggs.” So, let’s keep working on it. After all, “the weak point of the invasive apple snails are the egg clutches,” as Dr. Haller put it. Posted by Jess Van Dyke

Dr. Wm. T. Haller:

The Center for Aquatic & Invasive Plants:

Possibly related posts: (automatically generated)

* Recipe for Success
* Save the ‘Glades!
* Trapping Tons of Exotic Snails from Wellman Pond
* Crustless Quiche Base Recipe



This trap effectively catches Apple Snails when the water temperature exceeds 20 C (68 F). The optimum feeding temperature is 25 -30 C (77-86 F). In terms of reducing the population of the invasive, exotic, apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata and P. insularum),the most effective time to trap is after winter aestivation and prior to reproduction, about a one month period (April here in NW Florida).

STEP 1. Vertically insert the PVC pipe into the trap so that the pipe passes through the floating grate and out of the bottom.

STEP 2. In shallow water (1 ½-2’ deep), use a hammer to drive the PVC pipe into the bottom substrate until the trap is securely attached to the bottom. The trap works best if it set flush to the bottom substrate. Adjust the O-ring on the PVC pipe accordingly.

STEP 3. Rapidly pour one bag (1 kg) of Snail Busters Apple Snail Bait (Patent Pending) into the water next to the PVC pipe. Tap the floating grate until the bait passes through it into the trap.

STEP 4. After the trap has remained undisturbed overnight or for as long as one week, remove snails. Wear gloves because the edges of the snail shells can be very sharp.

Note: The trap can catch snails in this manner for up to a week, but a three-day interval of cleaning and resetting the trap is a good balance between labor cost and trapping efficacy. The snails are primarily nocturnal. If labor cost is not an issue, set the trap in the late afternoon and return in the morning. If the snail infestation is heavy and the trap is checked daily, the floating grate may be unnecessary.

If you have any questions or problems, email me at or call me at 850/893-4652.

Laporan Bergambar Pemantauan Serangan SGP Pada 21 Januari 2010 (Blok C, Sawah Sempadan)

Friday, January 22, 2010

Laporan Serangan Siput Gondang Pomacea (Pomacea spp.) di Sawah Sempadan, Daerah Kuala Selangor pada Musim 01/2010

Terdapat 2 jenis Siput Gondang Pomacea (Pomacea spp.) yang biasa ditemui di kawasan tanaman padi di Negeri Selangor iaitu Pomacea caniculata dan Pomacea insularus. Ancaman Siput Gondang dari jenis Poamacea insularus telah mula di kesan di sekitar Sawah Sempadan pada Musim 01/2009. Langkah awal telah dijalankan oleh pihak pegawai kawasan Sawah Sempadan dan Unit Perlindungan Tanaman dan Kuarantin Tumbuhan Sg. Burong serta bersama petani melalui semburan bersepadu pada 25 Mei 2009 di kawasan Tali Air sekitar Blok C, Sawah Sempadan menggunakan racun Mostox (Metaldehyde – Kelas IV). Walaubagaimanapun didapati pembiakan siput masih tidak dapat dikawal kerana pembiakan siput amat cepat. Siput yang berumur dua hingga 3 bulan (75 – 90 hari) telah mula matang dan boleh mula membiak. Pembiakan siput boleh berlaku sebanyak 2 hingga 4 kali sebulan. Kemampuan Siput Gondang untuk bertelur banyak sehingga 200-500 biji sepasang dan hidup sehingga 3 kaki kedalaman dari permukaan sawah meningkatkan lagi status populasi siput di dalam sawah.Siput gondang biasanya menyerang pada peringkat anak benih padi sehingga berumur 30 hari selepas tabur. Berdasarkan pemerhatian siput gondang juga boleh menyerang anak padi transplanter yang biasanya berumur 14 hingga 20 hari.Tahap keterukan serangan sehingga mencapai 10-50% pada benih padi boleh mendatangkan kerugian kepada petani bagi menanggung kos untuk menabur dan menyulam semula anak benih padi. Didapati pada musim 01/2009 serangan siput di kawasan Sawah Sempadan adalah sekitar 1.25 hektar. Walaubagaimanapun terdapat peningkatan serangan bagi musim 02/2009 iaitu sebanyak 4.64 hektar. Ancaman serangan Siput gondang dijangka meningkat sekiranya tiada kawalan secara berterusan oleh petani sama ada secara kawalan biologi mahupun kimia.

Laporan serangan dan kawalan yang telah dijalankan oleh petani
Keluasan tanaman padi di Sawah Sempadan adalah sebanyak 2304 hektar. Pada 11 Januari 2010 pihak Unit Perlindungan Tanaman dan Kuarantin Tumbuhan Sg. Burong telah menjalankan pemantauan di kawasan Sawah Sempadan. Didapati aktiviti perataan dan pembajakan sawah sedang dijalankan. Terdapat juga kawasan padi yang telah mula bertanam sama ada menggunakan kaedah tabur terus dan juga tranplanter. Sewaktu pembajakan dijalankan kelihatan siput-siput mula muncul di permukaan sawah padi. Keadaan hujan dan menyebabkan kehadiran air di dalam petak sawah juga menggalakkan siput gondang keluar dari tanah. Keadaan sawah yang berlopak akibat perataan sawah yang tidak sempurna juga menggalakkan pengumpulan siput di kawasan berlopak. Apabila aktiviti penaburan benih dijalankan dan penanaman transplanter dijalankan kebarangkalian anak padi dimakan adalah tinggi di kawasan yang berlopak.
Pada 21 Januari 2010, pihak Unit Perlindungan Tanaman dan Kuarantin Tumbuhan Sungai Burong telah menjalankan bancian khas serangan siput gondang di blok-blok kritikal dan menganggarkan keluasan serangan siput gondang di kawasan Sawah Sempadan adalah sebanyak 338.4 hektar (282 lot) dimana didapati serangan adalah melibatkan keterukan 1-40% kemusnahan padi. Bilangan petani yang terlibat dianggarkan seramai 282 orang. Peringkat padi yang diserang adalah berumur 15 hingga 20 HLT (Hari Lepas Tanam). Berdasarkan perjumpaan bersama-sama petani di sekitar Blok C, Sawah sempadan pada 21 Januari 2009 didapati petani telah mula menjalankan kawalan menggunakan pelbagai racun siput gondang termasuklah penggunaan Mostox (metaldehyde), Agondan 83.1 WP (niclosamide olamine) dan racun terlarang dari China iaitu Beynute (fentin acetate). Berdasarkan pemerhatian terdapat siput gondang yang telah mati dan timbul di permukaan air. Walaubagaimanapun masih terdapat populasi siput di dalam petak sawah yang tidak mati apabila diracun dan didapati mula memakan anak pokok padi. Kesan serangan juga kelihatan pada petak sawah iaitu kelihatan pokok padi dimakan yang menyebabkan keadaan lompang pada sesetengah petak sawah. Petani juga telah mula menyulam semula anak padi dan ada sesetengah petani yang membajak semula sawah serta meracun bagi mengurangkan serangan siput gondang.

Jadual 1: Data Bancian Serangan Siput Gondang Pomacea pada 21 Januari 2009 di Kawasan Sawah Sempadan bagi Musim 01/2010

Bil. Blok Bil. Lot Dibanci
Ada Serangan

1 Blok C 93
2 Blok J 39
3 Blok B 9
4 Blok D 8
5 Blok K 2
6 Blok E 75
7 Blok Q 56
JUMLAH 282 Lot

Bil. Blok Bil. Lot Dibanci
Tiada Serangan

1 Blok C 21
2 Blok J 65
3 Blok B 95
4 Blok D 104
5 Blok K 102
6 Blok E 29
7 Blok Q 48
JUMLAH 464 Lot

Langkah Kawalan
Berdasarkan perbincangan diantara pihak Unit Perlindungan Tanaman dan Kuarantin Tumbuhan Sungai Burong bersama Penolong Pegawai Pertanian kawasan Sawah Sempadan satu sesi Taklimat Kawalan Siput Gondang Pomacea serta aktiviti gotong-royong dijangka diadakan pada 26 Januari 2009 pada sebelah petang. Petani juga telah dimaklumkan bagi mengambil racun siput gondang jenis Mostox (metaldehyde) berjumlah 150 kotak mulai hari Jumaat (22 Januari 2009) di pejabat pertanian kawasan Sawah Sempadan bagi tujuan kawalan segera. Walaubagaimanapun bekalan racun tidak dapat diberikan kesemua kawasan kerana bekalan racun tidak mencukupi. Adalah diharapkan bantuan kewangan bagi pembelian bekalan racun dari pihak-pihak bertanggungjawab dapat disegerakan bagi tujuan kawalan bersepadu di keseluruhan kawasan.

Punca Kebarangkalian Berlaku Serangan Siput Gondang
Setelah mendapat maklum balas daripada petani, didapati peningkatan serangan siput gondang adalah disebabkan oleh :-
i) Populasi siput gondang yang semakin tinggi kerana kawalan di keseluruhan kawasan tidak dijalankan. Hanya sesetengah blok sahaja yang bergiat aktif menjalankan kawalan.

ii) Peningkatan populasi siput gondang di kawasan tali air juga secara tidak langsung menyebabkan serangan di dalam sawah padi turut meningkat kerana tali air menjadi tempat pembiakan siput.

iii) Penggunaan racun dalam kadar yang tidak mencukupi juga menyebabkan tidak kesemua siput dapat dihapuskan. Keadaan cuaca hujan selepas aktiviti meracun dijalankan juga menyebabkan kekurangan keberkesanan racun.

Langkah-langkah Kawalan Siput Gondang Pomacea
Diantara aktiviti –aktiviti kawalan secara bersepadu yang boleh dijalankan bagi kawalan serangan Siput Gondang Pomacea iaitu;-

i) Menjalankan pemantauan telur-telur serta siput di dalam sawah petani dengan memasang perangkap tiang-tiang pancang untuk siput bertelur di dalam sawah serta memusnahkannya.

ii) Menjalankan program gotong-royong mengutip dan memusnahkan telur-telur serta siput-siput yang ditemui.

iii) Membekalkan racun moluska seperti racun Mostok dan Baylucide kepada individu petani yang terlibat.

iv) Pemasangan perangkap jaring (5 mm mesh) pada saluran air masuk dan keluar.

v) Menjalankan pembajakan halus 2 kali sedalam 4 inci atau lebih bagi membunuh siput gondang. Pembajakan mestilah rata dan keadaan berlopak di dalam sawah haruslah dielakkan.

vi) Membuat parit ladang di sekeliling petak sawah bagi menghad pergerakan siput di dalam parit ladang.

Beberapa pendekatan tambahan kawalan bersepadu juga disyorkan kepada petani bagi kawalan serangan Siput Gondang iaitu;-

i. Membela Itik Jawa (20-30 ekor sehektar) di dalam sawah. Itik dilepaskan selepas musim penuaian dan peringkat padi 45 hari selepas menanam atau mengubah bagi memakan anak-anak siput.

ii. Meletakkan umpan seperti kulit nangka, daun ubi kayu, buah sukun atau kangkung untuk siput makan bagi memudahkan pengutipan siput.

iii. Pastikan jentera sawah dicuci bersih apabila keluar daripada sawah yang ada Siput Gondang.